Hazton and Jarwo. The Indonesian government has committed to realizing food self-sufficiency. Increasing rice production is one of the Ministry of Agriculture’s main achievements. If previously rice productivity was only around 4–6 tons per hectare, currently the achievement and acceleration of achievement have exceeded 6 tons, and some have even reached 10 tons per hectare. The next target, which is still homework in realizing Indonesia as the world’s food barn, is 20 tons per hectare.
One of the rice cultivation techniques that surfaced in 2012 was the Hazton method. This method breaks the culture of cultivation that has developed for decades by planting 20–30 seeds per planting hole. In fact, the culture that has developed for a long time only plants 3 to 5 seeds per planting hole. The focus of Haston’s achievement is that the rice planted has all become productive mother rice and is no longer centered on the formation of tillers.
The name Hazton itself comes from the names of the inventors, namely Ir. H. Hazairin, MS, and Anton Kamarudin, SP, MSi, which were introduced in West Kalimantan.
Jajar Legowo / Jarwo System
Not long before hazton was born or introduced to the general public, the Ministry of Agriculture had also introduced a cultivation technique that could double yields. Jajar Legowo technique, commonly called Jarwo This jarwo technique originated with a researcher from the Agricultural Research and Development Agency named Sadeli Suriapermana. This jarwo technique modifies the previous planting distance in the form of a tiled box with a distance of 25 x 25 into a jarwo 2 type: 1, which is a planting distance of (25×12.5×50) cm. The first 25 cm is the distance between clumps in the row, 12.5 cm is the distance between clumps in the fence row, and 50 cm is the legrowo distance. Another type of jarwo is 4:1, or farmers sometimes practice 6:1. The 4:1 type means that every 4 rows are then interrupted by jarwo with a distance of 50 cm or by removing one row of plants and moving the plants in the fence row. At first glance, jajar legowo seems to reduce the clump population due to the reduction in rows. However, if you look closely, jajar legowo actually increases the clump population of rice plants in a field. A rice population with a 25 x 25 tegel planting pattern produces a planting population of 160,000 per hectare. While the use of Jarwo 2:1 will produce a plant population per ha of 213,300.
Some rice cultivation researchers argue that the existence of these jarwo trenches can increase the absorption of sunlight so that plants can produce abundantly. Another advantage of jarwo is that it makes it easier for farmers to carry out farm management such as supplementary fertilization, weeding, and spraying, and can even be used for rat pest control. Jarwo also allows farmers to utilize it for minapadi (rice and fish farming).
As explained earlier, hazton is a modification of rice cultivation by planting 20 to 30 seedlings. The seedlings used are old seedlings that are 25-30 days old. The hazton technique is very appropriate for areas endemic to gold snails, because with the use of old seedlings, damage caused by gold snails will be significantly reduced.
Because of the use of 20-30 seeds per planting, the need for seedlings for the nursery increases sharply. The use of seeds with the hazton technique reaches 125 kg per hectare, far exceeding the jarwo cultivation technique or the usual 25 kg/hectare.
The specialty of the hazton technique is high productivity because the seeds planted become mother seeds and without relying on the number of tillers. However, farmers must also pay attention to the threat of diseases and other pests.
Since the introduction of hazton, various government agencies have conducted research comparing productivity between hazton, jajar legowo, and Integrated Crop Management. The results vary according to the region and land conditions. Some said hazton was better than jarwo and PTT, while others said jarwo was better than hazton. Those who benefit from seed orders, seed assistance projects, and seed procurement are of course very supportive of hazton because this technique will multiply seed orders from farmers and thus multiply their profits.
The different results of this study prove that rice cultivation cannot be done uniformly. Proving which one is better in increasing farmers’ productivity will only make farmers confused because of the different opinions of experts and policy makers. In my view, hazton cannot be compared with jarwo. Hazton and Jarwo are very different techniques. Hazton modifies the number of seeds planted, while jarwo is a modification of the planting distance. In fact, I sometimes see farmers using both techniques. The planting distance is set with jarwo, and the seeds are planted with hazton technique. This is fine, because farmers are the managers of the land they own.
Although both techniques aim to increase land productivity, hazton has a more specific area that is endemic to carp. Areas that are not attacked by gold snails can still use the technique of planting seedlings with only 5 seeds per hole, because the saplings of the planted seeds are not disturbed by pests and will develop well according to the variety used. While jarwo can be used throughout Indonesia because all plants need sunlight and jarwo is a technique that provides high efficiency in the absorption of sunlight. This is what farmers should understand, so that they can spend more wisely on the purchase of rice seeds.
Jarwo super is a Jarwo cultivation technique that has additional technological components. These technologies include the use of biofertilizers and biodecomposers. In the full version, Jarwo Super uses (1) quality seeds, (2) biodecomposer during tillage, (3) biological fertilizer as a seed treatment, (4) integrated control of plant disrupting organisms, and (5) agricultural machinery, especially for planting and harvesting.
Biodecomposer is used 7 days before tillage or plowing. One of the trademarks of biodecomposers is EM4. This biodecomposer is sprayed onto the bunds of rice fields, piles of straw, or straw that is still in the middle of the rice fields left over from the harvest. This biodecomposer contains bacteria to accelerate the decay of straw into organic matter. The use of biodecomposers will increase soil organic matter so that the soil becomes fertile and suppress the development of soil-borne diseases. The application used is 2 kg/hectare mixed with 400 liters of water.
Besides biodecomposer, biofertilizer is also an additional technology that distinguishes Jarwo and Jarwo Super. Biofertilizer is a non-pathogenic microbe-based fertilizer that can produce phytohormones (plant growth-promoting substances), nitrogen fixers, and phosphate solvents that function to improve soil fertility and health. On the market, one example of a biofertilizer product is agrimeth. The use of the fertilizer is to mix the biofertilizer with rice after soaking and before sowing. Rice seeds that have been mixed with biofertilizer are immediately sown, not delayed for more than 3 hours, and are not exposed to sunlight so as not to kill the microbes that have been attached to the seeds. Application should be done in the morning before 08.00 or in the afternoon between 15.00 and 17.00.
These are some of the rice cultivation techniques that are “trending” in 2016 and 2017. The government, as a catalyst, ensures that it remains beside farmers to realize food sovereignty. Various cultivation techniques have been offered by the government to help farmers realize this dream. It is the farmers who have the right to decide on the cultivation techniques that are suitable for their land conditions.
Cooperation between the government and farmers in their respective fields will accelerate Indonesia’s dream of becoming the world’s food barn. Farmers with a wealth of cultivation experience concentrate on increasing productivity, while the government prepares regulations and rules to ensure the sustainability of cultivation and the distribution of crops produced by farmers. As the government wants a significant increase in production, it must also protect farmers from price fluctuations arising from price declines during the harvest season.